Friday, October 22, 2010
Toyota 2JZ-GTE Engine
The 2JZ-GTE is an inline-layout, six-cylinder, belt-driven dual-overhead camshaft, air-intercooled, twin-turbocharged, cast-iron block, aluminium cylinder headed engine designed and manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation that was produced from 1991 until 2002 in Japan. Development and evolution of the engine was, principally, a response to Nissan's relatively new and then-successful RB26DETT engine which had achieved palpable success in FIA Group A and Group N touring car championships, worldwide. Final development of the 2JZ-GTE was outsourced to German engineering firm Johann A. Krause Maschinenfabrik GmbH for refinement to meet production car homogolation requirements set forth by the former All-Japan Grand Touring Car Championship.
For all applications, two gearboxes were mated to the engine:
Toyota A341E 4-speed automatic
Toyota V160 and V161 6-speed manual (jointly developed with Getrag as the Type 233)
The 2JZ-GTE originally powered the Toyota Aristo V (JZS147) in 1991 before becoming Toyota's flagship performance engine in the Toyota Supra RZ (JZA80). Its mechanical basis was the existing 2JZ-GE, but differed in its use of sequential twin turbochargers and an air-to-air side-mounted intercooler. The engine block, crank, and connecting rods of the 2JZ-GE and 2JZ-GTE are the same with the exception that the 2JZ-GTE has oil spray bars installed in the block to aid in cooling the pistons. Toyota's VVT-i variable valve timing technology was added to the engine beginning in September 1997, whence it phased out the original engine. Consequently, maximum torque and horsepower was raised for engines selling in all markets.
The addition of twin turbochargers, jointly developed by Toyota with Hitachi, in sequential configuration had raised its commercially-cited output from 230 PS (169 kW; 227 hp) to the, then, Japanese auto industry maximum of 280 PS (206 kW; 276 hp) at 5600 rpm. In its first appearance, torque was advertised as 44.3 kgm (435 Nm, 320 lbft) to be later recited as 54.1 kgm (530 Nm, 391 lbft) with the introduction VVT-i in 1997. The mutually-agreed, industry-wide output ceiling was enforced by Japan's now-defunct Gentlemen's Agreement, exclusively between Japanese automakers selling to the Japanese domestic market. For North American and European markets, power was raised to 415 PS (305 kW; 409 hp) at 5600 rpm.
The export version of the 2JZ-GTE achieved its higher power output with the use of newer stainless steel turbochargers (ceramic for Japanese models), revised camshafts, and larger injectors (550 cc/min for export, 440 cc/min for Japanese). The mechanical similarities between the Japanese-specification CT20 turbine and export-specification CT12B turbine allow interchangeability of the exhaust-side propeller shaft. Additionally, the export-exclusive CT12B turbine received more durable turbine housings and stainless steel turbine and impeller fins. Multiple variants of the Japanese CT20 turbine exist discretely, which are identified with the B, R, and A part number suffixes (eg.: CT20A).
Toyota Aristo JZS147 (Japan-only)
Toyota Aristo V300 JZS161 (Japan-only)
Toyota Supra RZ/Turbo JZA80
In around 2000, Toyota introduced what are probably the least recognised members of the JZ engine family – the FSE direct injection variants. These FSE 1JZ and 2JZ engines are aimed at achieving minimal emissions and fuel consumption together with no loss of performance.
The 2.5-litre 1JZ-FSE employs the same block as the conventional 1JZ-GE; everything up top, however, is unique. The ‘D4’ FSE employs a relatively narrow angle cylinder head with swirl control valves that serve to improve combustion efficiency. This is necessary to run at extremely lean air-fuel ratios around 20 to 40:1 at certain engine load and revs. Not surprisingly, fuel consumption is reduced by around 20 percent (when tested in the Japanese 10/15 urban mode).
Interestingly, normal unleaded fuel is enough to cope with the FSE’s 11:1 compression ratio.
The direct injection version of the 1JZ generates 147 kW (197HP) and 250Nm (184ft lbs) – virtually the same as the conventional VVT-i 1JZ-GE. This highly efficient engine is fitted to the 2000 Mark II, 2001 Brevis, Progres, Verossa, Crown and Crown Estate. All are fitted with an automatic transmission.
The 3-litre 2JZ-FSE uses the same direct injection principle as the smaller 1JZ version but runs an even higher 11.3:1 compression ratio. This engine matches the conventional VVT-i 2JZ-GE with 162 kW (217HP) and 294Nm (216ft lbs). The 2JZ-FSE is fitted to certain 1999 Crown models and the 2001 Brevis and Progres. Again, all use automatic transmissions