Monday, April 30, 2012

New Toyota 86 Coming Soon?

Recently when I browse the Malaysia Toyota official website, I found out one of its flash advertisement playing "All New Toyota 86, Coming Soon".

The Toyota AE86 is getting wellknown in Malaysia due to the famous Japanese animation story of "Initial D", but since than the AE86 can be consider old model at present.

But it seem the new Toyota 86 is not the replacement of AE86 at least at the engine side as it doesn't using the A series engine anymore.
Here is some fact from wikipedia, infact this engine got some relation to Subaru BRZ.

The Toyota 86 is a sports car developed jointly by Japanese automobile manufacturers Toyota and Subaru. It has 2+2 seats, a 2-door coupé body style and a front-engine, rear-wheel drive layout.

The model will be sold under three different brands: Toyota (Toyota 86 in Japan and Australia and Toyota GT-86 in Europe), Subaru (Subaru BRZ) and Scion (Scion FR-S). "86" (pronounced "eight-six" or Hachi-Roku (ハチロク)) refers to the Toyota AE86, a car sold in the 1980s. As such, the Toyota 86 has been named as the spiritual successor of the original AE86 during the press release of the 86. The Toyota and Scion have little distinguishing elements - the latter has cheaper pieces to reduce base price in the United States. The Subaru BRZ differs mainly in its front end, where the grille has an hexagonal shape versus an inverted trapezoid in the Toyota and Scion, along with the placement of the BRZ as the most luxurious variant of the platform, with more standard features and a higher suggested price than the Toyota-marketed versions.

It was first presented as a concept car at the October 2009 Tokyo Motor Show under the name Toyota FT-86, FT being shorthand for "Future Toyota". Later, a high-performance version was launched at the January 2010 Tokyo Auto Salon as the Toyota FT-86 G Sports. At the 2011 Geneva Motor Show, a third concept car was shown, the Toyota FT-86 II. The BRZ and FR-S also had their concept cars, the Subaru BRZ Concept STI and the Scion FR-S Concept. The production version of the 86, BRZ and FR-S were unveiled at the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show.

Initially, the 86 and sister models will feature a Subaru-sourced naturally aspirated 2.0 L flat-4 boxer gasoline engine (Toyota engine code 4U-GSE, Subaru engine code FA20) that will deliver 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) that includes a direct injection system from Toyota. The model will be offered with two six-speed transmissions: a manual and an automatic with paddle shifters. The weight of the 86 is 1,180 to 1,250 kilograms (2,600 to 2,760 lb) depending on specification and equipment.

On 16th of March 2012 an line-off ceremony was held at Subaru’s Gunma Main Plant (Ota-city, Gunma Prefecture, Japan) with Toyota Motor Corporation (TMC) President Akio Toyoda and honored guests in attendance, in commemoration of the production start of the Subaru BRZ and Toyota 86. FHI and TMC first agreed on business collaboration in October 2005. After the companies expanded their cooperative ties with new agreements related to development and production in April 2008, they then began four years of development. The completion of this joint-development product also marks a great achievement of the alliance between FHI and TMC. During the first month since February 2nd 2012 Toyota received 7,000 pre-orders on Toyota 86 model in Japan. First Toyota 86 sales are scheduled to begin on April 6th.

Tuesday, April 24, 2012

Daihatsu EF-RL Turbo Cylinder Head Gasket

One of the Kancil turbo engine swap if L7 turbo. Initially I quite reluctant to import this Daihatsu EF-RL cylinder head gasket, what is the reason? Firstly the original cost of this piece of cylinder head gasket is very high, and for those familiar with this engine, you may notice the design of this cylinder head gasket is similar to those Perodua Kelisa and Kenari.

The difference between this 2 is the original EF-RL material is graphite and the Kelisa and Kenari using metal type of gasket. One more thing is gasket bore diameter on EF-RL is 70mm while Kelisa and Kenari gasket bore diameter is 74mm.

Due to the high cost of the OEM type of EF-RL cylinder head gasket, many tend to use the metal type of head gasket as replacement.

So what made the price for this piece of cylinder head gasket is more expensive even compare to the metal type, I think the special rubber O-ring that show on above photo, which will give a very special seal effect is one of the main reason, this type of O-ring seal design is also can be seen on the Mitsubishi 4G92 cylinder head gasket.

And to copy this O-ring is never an easy job for other manufacturer, they might just skip this O-ring design or their seal effect is never function as well as this beuty OEM piece.

Friday, April 20, 2012

Daihatsu D-X Concept Car

One of the car exhibit in the 2011 Tokyo Motor Show, with a statement as below from one of the website I found,

Remember the lovely little Daihatu Copen? This little 2-seat Kei car is still on sale (though the one on the floor was badged “Ultimate Edition,” which could be construed in English to mean “last one,” though nobody on the stand could understand my question to answer it. In any case, this sure looks like its replacement.

But personally, I like the Copen design than this one.

And what's more? Power by a 2 cylinders engine!!!

Power comes from a two-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled engine rated at the max legal limit for Kei cars (64 hp — many of them lie) spinning the front wheels. To my eye, the Copen is far prettier. This thing seems to mix its metaphors — SUV-ish cladding in a tiny open car. Oh well. At least it has a retractable hard top.


No more Daihatsu Copen?

Feeling a bit sad when seeing this news on which Daihatsu is set to end its production of Copen in August 2012.

Although this original Copen model is rarely seen on the road in Malaysia, but its JB-JL and JB-DET engine consider one of the favorite engine among local Kancil engine swap target.

Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Common Mistakes to Avoid When Resurfacing Cylinder Heads & Blocks

This article is extract from which wriiten by Larry Carley, as we feel sometime we should not just blame the gasket is bad due to the problem face after the installation.

Cylinder heads and blocks may need to be resurfaced to restore flatness or to improve the surface finish, or milled to change the deck height for a variety of reasons. The deck surface on the head or block may need to be resurfaced if the surface isn’t smooth or flat. A head may need to be resurfaced after welds or other repairs have been made, or milled to increase the compression ratio. The manifold surfaces on a head may need to be cleaned up due to corrosion or erosion, or the angle changed slightly to better align with an aftermarket intake manifold. The deck surface on the block may need to be resurfaced. Whatever the reason is for resurfacing these parts, you want to do it quickly, efficiently and correctly. Mistakes here can be very expensive, because once metal has been removed there is no putting it back.


Before you can resurface or mill a cylinder head or block, you have to square it up with your resurfacing equipment. You can’t just plunk a head or block onto a fixture, clamp it down and start cutting. You have to line it up so the surface is parallel with the cutter head fore-and-aft, and side-to-side. Once you’ve accomplished that you can set your depth of cut and proceed with a rough cut or finish cut.

One mistake to avoid here is moving the head after you have aligned it. With some older styles of fixtures, the act of clamping down the head to make it rigid can disturb the alignment. The fixturing on some newer machines allows you to make the part rigid, then align it before you cut it. One resurfacing machine also has an indicator gauge on the rail that makes set up quicker and easier for accurate resurfacing.

You also want the part (and the resurfacer) to be as rigid as possible, with no movement while it is being resurfaced. Any movement will affect the surface finish.

Wrong Surface Finish

To seal properly, a head gasket requires a surface finish that is within a recommended range. The specifications vary depending on the type of head gasket. If the surface is too rough, or in some cases too smooth, the gasket may not seal properly and leak or fail. One common mistake to avoid here is not looking up the recommended specifications for a particular engine and/or a particular type of head gasket.

As a rule, the recommended surface finish for a traditional composition style soft-face head gasket in an engine with cast iron heads and block is 60 to 120 microinches Ra (roughness average). But the recommended surface finish for the same type of head gasket in an engine with an aluminum head on a cast iron block is smoother, typically 20 to 50 microinches Ra. On late model engines with multi-layer steel (MLS) head gaskets, the OEM surface finish recommendations tend to be even smoother, say 20 to 30 microinches Ra or even 7 to 15 Ra. But the aftermarket also sells MLS gaskets with special coatings for many of these same applications that can handle surface finishes in the 50 to 60 microinch Ra range. So you have to know your gaskets and the surface finish recommendations for them by the gasket manufacturer, or the OEM if you are using a factory-style replacement head gasket.

Don’t assume close enough is good enough. Eye-balling the surface finish will tell you if the surface is really smooth (a mirror-like finish), really rough (like sandpaper) or somewhere in between, but it won’t tell you if you are in the recommended range. Dragging your fingernail across the surface isn’t much better, either, because a 30 Ra finish feels almost identical to a 50 Ra finish. And the smoother the finish gets, the more difficult it is to see or feel much difference.

The only way to accurately determine if the surface finish is within the correct range is to check it with a profilometer. This is an expensive electronic instrument that drags a diamond-tipped stylus across the surface to calculate its profile characteristics. The profilometer can then display various values for the surface including roughness average (Ra), average peak height (Rpk), average valley depth (Rvk), and even waviness. These numbers may not be needed for an economy Chevy 350 rebuild, but they can be critical when building high performance engines or durability engines. The mistake to avoid here is assuming the surface finish is correct when you haven’t actually measured it.

Wrong Feed Rate/Speed

The quality and smoothness of the surface finish requires using the correct feed rate and speed for the type of tool bit. This, in turn, will vary depending on the diameter of the cutter head.

To achieve the best possible finish, you should use a higher spindle speed and lower table feed rate with a very shallow cut on the final pass (less than .001").

If you are using a carbide insert to refinish a cast iron head, the spindle rpm required will typically be about 140 rpm for an 11-inch cutter, 120 rpm for a 13-inch cutter or 110 rpm for a 14-inch cutter.

With CBN (cubic boron nitride) or PCD (polycrystaline diamond) inserts, the recommended spindle speeds are much higher: 1040 rpm for a 11-inch cutter, 880 rpm for 13-inch cutter, or 720 rpm for a 14-inch cutter.

If the head or block being resurfaced is harder, high silicon content alloy, the speeds need to be slowed down a bit: 690 rpm for a 11-inch cutter, 580 rpm for a 13-inch cutter or 540 rpm for a 14-inch cutter. With a single CBN or PCD insert cutter spinning at 1,000 to 1,500 rpm, the feed rate should probably be less than two inches per minute on the final cut to achieve a surface finish in the low teens.

Removing Gaskets The Wrong Way

Engine disassembly is a dirty, greasy, time-consuming job, so any shortcut that makes the work go faster is a good idea, right? Maybe not if the short cut ends up damaging parts or creating more work for you in the long run.

The practice we’re talking about here is using an abrasive pad in a drill to grind off gasket residue that may be stuck to the heads or block. The abrasive will certainly whiz the gasket debris right off, but it can also whiz off metal leaving a shallow depression, a dig or a groove that may create a sealing problem when the engine is put back together.

Another reason not to use an abrasive disk to grind off or clean a surface is that it generates a lot of dust. Some gasket fibers may be hazardous to breathe. A dust mask can protect your lungs, but the residue can end up in other places where it may cause problems later (like in the cylinders, intake ports, oil or coolant passages).

The best way to remove gaskets is with a sharp scraper and/or a can of aerosol chemical gasket remover. Spraying the gaskets with a chemical remover eliminates hard scraping and the risk of scratching or gouging the surface, especially on soft aluminum heads and blocks. The chemical does most of the work by softening the gaskets. The residue can then be easily scraped off the surface.

One mistake to avoid here is using the wrong tool to scrape off the gaskets. An old screw driver is not a gasket remover. Nor is a putty knife. A gasket scraper is the right tool to use because it has a sharp, beveled edge that gets under and lifts the old gasket from the surface. Just make sure the scraper is sharp (it should be sharp enough to cut paper).

The trick to using a gasket scraper correctly is to scrape at an angle that is almost parallel to the surface. By keeping the angle small, the tip of the scraper will slip under the gasket and shear it away from the surface without digging in. If you try to use it like a chisel, you’ll probably end up gouging the surface and damaging the surface. Also, hold the scraper so you push it forward (away from you) as you scrape. This way, if the tool slips it won’t gouge you.

Not Checking Flatness

Never assume a head is flat. You can’t tell if a head or block is flat or not unless you measure it with a straight edge and feeler gauge. You should always check for flatness, especially in critical areas like those between the cylinders.

Flatness specifications vary depending on the application, but on most pushrod engines with cast iron heads, up to .003" (0.076 mm) out-of-flat lengthwise in V6 heads, .004" (0.102 mm) in four cylinder or V8 heads, and .006" (0.152 mm) in straight six cylinder heads is considered acceptable. Aluminum heads, on the other hand, should have no more than .002" (.05 mm) out-of-flat in any direction. On a performance engine, the flatter the better.

If the face of an aluminum head is warped, don’t assume the only way to straighten it is to grind metal off the face until it is flat again. The whole head is warped. If the head has one or two overhead camshafts, the cam bores will also be misaligned in most cases. The best fix here is to straighten the head BEFORE it is resurfaced. This can greatly reduce or possibly even eliminate the need to remove more than a couple thousandths of metal.

Aluminum heads can be straightened by countershimming the head on a heavy steel plate (place shims under either end of the head to offset the amount of distortion), clamping it down, then heating it in an oven to about 425° F for several hours, then letting it slow cool. The goal is to get the cam bores straight. Once they are in alignment, chances are the face of the head will be reasonably flat, too, and require minimal machining to refinish the surface.

Another method for straightening aluminum heads is to use a torch to head the top of the head, starting in the center and working towards the ends. The trick here is to keep the head temperature under 500° F to prevent softening the head too much.

Taking Too Much Metal

A head or block with a depression in the surface, or a surface that is out-of-flat can be made flat again by simply increasing the depth of cut when the part is resurfaced. The rule here is to always remove the LEAST amount of metal that’s necessary to restore flatness. Remove too much metal and you could end up with problems.

Excessive milling reduces the volume of the combustion chambers and increases compression, possibly to the point where detonation may become an issue even with higher octane fuel. On overhead cam engines, milling too much metal off the face of the head changes the installed height of the head and retards cam timing. On a pushrod head, it will alter the valvetrain geometry and may require corrections in the length of the pushrods. The only way to restore lost head height and combustion chamber volume is to use a copper or steel head shim with the head gasket, or replace the head.

Don’t ‘Make Do’ With Outdated Equipment
Extremely smooth finishes require high quality resurfacing equipment (typically a milling machine) to achieve really low Ra numbers. It doesn’t matter if you use carbide, CBN or PCD tool bits to resurface a head as long as you use the correct feed rate and speed – and the equipment is rigid enough to hold the cutter steady so the tool bit doesn’t lift or chatter when it makes in interrupted cut.
For example, a converted grinder may be able to mill heads and blocks. But the spindles and table drives in many of these older machines cannot hold close enough tolerances to achieve a really smooth, flat finish. One equipment manufacturer said grinding and milling machines that are more than five years old are probably incapable of producing consistent results and should be replaced.
Most of the surfacing equipment that’s being sold to shops today has been redesigned for high speed milling with CBN and PCD. The machines have been beefed up with more powerful motors, heavier castings, electrically-driven ball screw tables, and tighter assembly tolerances. Some can hold machining tolerances to one tenth of a thousandth of an inch (.0001")!
Using The Wrong Tools
Though the experts recommend using PCD on aluminum and CBN on cast iron, many shops find CBN works fine on both types of metals and eliminates the need to change tooling when resurfacing different types of heads.
CBN may not be the best choice for milling aluminum because aluminum tends to stick to CBN and leave a smeared finish. Even so, there is a way to prevent this from happening: just spray a lubricant on the surface or the cutter. According to one source, the absolute best lubricant to use for this purpose is olive oil. Only a little is needed, and it’s non-toxic, doesn’t stink and is relatively inexpensive.
PCD works better on aluminum than CBN (and costs about the same), but PCD is not recommended for resurfacing cast iron heads or blocks because diamond gets too hot at high cutting speeds, reacts chemically with iron and breaks down. CBN can handle higher temperatures than PCD, and dissipates heat about four times faster than silicon carbide or aluminum oxide, making it a good choice for high speed resurfacing.
Something else that must be considered when using CBN to resurface heads and blocks is the depth of cut. CBN inserts typically have a honed edge, so the minimum depth of cut is usually limited to about .004" or .005" on cast iron. If too shallow a cut is attempted, the result can be edge deterioration, poor tool life or chipping of the insert (CBN is sometimes coated with titanium to improve tool life).
Trying To Get Too Much From A Bit
CBN and PCD last a lot longer than carbide, but they don’t last forever. One common mistake that’s made is trying to cut too many heads or blocks with the same edge. If you are using a CBN button for resurfacing, you should rotate the button about 5 degrees after 20 to 30 heads to maintain an optimum cutting surface.
Rotating the button just a little bit when it starts to get noisy will expose a fresh edge and reduce the risk of chipping the button or wearing it too far. Buttons with a beveled edge can be relapped to restore the edge if they are not too badly worn. But if the button has lost too much of its edge, the only option is to replace it with a new one.
Resurfacing Diesel Heads With Precombustion Chamber Cups
Here’s a job that can ruin a tool insert in seconds. The issue here is not the difference in hardness between the cylinder head and the precombustion chamber cubs, but the fact that many of these cups are slightly loose. Staking the cups won’t lock them in place because the first pass with a resurfacer will shave off the staking.
One solution is to remove the cups, resurface the head, then get the cup counterbore to the proper depth and reinstall the cups. Another solution is to make the cups rigid by applying a penetrating locking compound around the cups BEFORE you resurface the head. This saves the time and labor of removing and reinstalling the cups.
Trying To Resurface Rusty Heads
Iron oxide on a cast iron head will kill the life of a tool insert. The same goes for hard calcium deposits in water jacket openings. The cutter tool bit can also pick up this debris and drag it across the surface, leaving a groove. The mistake to avoid here is trying to resurface a dirty head that has not been properly cleaned. Remove all of the rust and calcium BEFORE the head is resurfaced. This can be done with chemical cleaners, a shot blast cleaner or a tumbler.
Not Wearing Eye Protection
Here’s another common mistake some engine builders wish they hadn’t made when resurfacing parts: not wearing eye protection. The cutter guard on a resurfacer will deflect most of the chips down, but a lot of debris still goes flying every which way while the machine is running. If you lean down to take a close look while the machine is running, you may get hit in the face with some microscopic metal shards. That’s why you want eye protection,: either a full face shield or safety glasses with side covers. You have two eyes so losing one may not leave you blind, but it will mess up your depth perception.
Lack Of Maintenance
You can’t expect to get high quality surface finishes if you’ve neglected your equipment. Dry milling doesn’t require any coolant so there’s no coolant to maintain. But the resurfacer itself needs to be set up correctly and checked periodically to make sure it is still in proper alignment.
Resurfacers need to be leveled with an accurate level. Place the level on the ways of the machine or on the table mounting surface. Adjust the machine front to back as well as left to right until it is perfectly level in all directions.
Next, check the table to make sure it is running true. Attach a magnetic dial indicator in the cutter head and traverse the left and right to see if the table is true to the wheel head. You should see no more than .002" of variation across the entire traverse of the table. If the table is not running true, contact the equipment supplier for the correction procedure.
Also check the parallels, using a dial indicator and granite plate to make sure they are straight. If the parallels have runout, the resurfacer won’t cut straight.
The cylinder head and block rollover clamps also need to be checked to make sure everything is straight. If the cutter head has more than one tool bit, all must be set to equal height (no more than .0005" variation) to get consistent results.

Wednesday, April 4, 2012

RB26DET Cylinder Head Gasket

Further extend from my previous post, so, which one you prefer? The metal type or graphite type.