Monday, October 25, 2010

Nissan Leaf for Zero Emission

The Nissan Leaf (also formatted "LEAF" as bacronym for Leading, Environmentally friendly, Affordable, Family car) is a compact five-door hatchback electric car to be produced by Nissan. According to the manufacturer, the Leaf's all-electric range is 100 miles (160 km) in city driving.

Sales are scheduled to begin in the United States and Japan in December 2010, followed by Portugal in January 2011, Ireland in February, the United Kingdom in March, and the Netherlands in June, with global market availability planned for 2012. As the reservation process began for US customers, Nissan announced that availability for December 2010 is limited in quantities and to select markets and initially through online reservations only. The availability will be increased by the second quarter of 2011, with full US market rollout planned for 2012.

The announced price in Japan starts at ¥3.76 million, US$32,780 in the United States, GB£28,990 in the United Kingdom, and approximately €35,000 in the other three European countries where it will be launched first; these prices include the price of the battery package, and almost all countries have applicable tax incentives or subsidies.

Because the Leaf is an all-electric car, it has the advantages of producing no local air pollution, reduces the need to import oil and enhances energy security, and its total cost of ownership improves in comparison as the price of gasoline rises.

The Leaf expected all-electric range is 100 miles (160 km) on the EPA city driving cycle and remains the same as the EV-11 prototype. Based on third-party test drives, reviewers have found that the range available from a single charge can vary up to 40 percent in real-world situations; reports vary from about 62 miles (100 km) to almost 138 miles (222 km) depending on driving style, load, traffic conditions, weather (i.e. wind, atmospheric density) and accessory use.

Nissan tested the Leaf under several scenarios to estimate real-world range figures, obtaining a worst case scenario of 47 miles (76 km) and a best case scenario of 138 miles (222 km).

The Leaf uses a front-mounted electric motor driving the wheels, powered by a {{convert/{{{2}}}24kW·h0r=red=LoffAoffDbSoffs=}} lithium ion battery pack rated to deliver power up to 90 kW (120 hp). The pack contains air-cooled, stacked laminar battery cells with lithium manganate cathodes. The battery and control module together weigh 300 kg (660 lb) and the specific energy of the cells is 140 W·h/kg. It is estimated that each battery pack costs Nissan US$18,000 (as of March 2010[update]) and this cost is expected to be halved by mass production. The battery pack is expected to retain 70 to 80% of its capacity after 10 years; the battery pack's lifespan depends on how often (440-volt) fast charging is used and on environmental factors such as extreme hot weather, which is tough on the battery. Nissan states the battery will have a "lifespan of 5-10 years under normal use". In July 2010 Nissan announced that the Leaf's battery will be guaranteed for eight years or 100,000 miles (160,000 km). To keep the center of gravity as low as possible the battery is housed partly below the front seats, in a thin layer below the rear floor, and with the majority of the cells in a long rack below the rear seats. The pack does not intrude into the rear trunk space. The battery pack consists of 48 modules with each module containing 4 cells. The battery pack is assembled by Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (AESC) - a joint venture between Nissan, NEC and NEC Energy Devices. The battery's chemistry is LiMn2O4 (Lithium,Manganese,Oxygen).